A computer is an integrated machine which is able to execute certain sets of mathematical operations or logical operations automatically without any help from the operator. Modern computers are able to do broad spectrum of activities such as scientific computation, optimization of complicated systems, statistical computation, data processing, database management and web-programming. Computers have brought significant changes in the field of information technology and its applications. They have also provided a tremendous convenience to people all over the world by reducing many traditional office procedures into a few mouse clicks. Nowadays, computers are available in all shapes and sizes, along with several options for operating systems, software, speed, memory capacity and other aspects. It has become very popular for businesses, educational institutions, offices, home and other places where high-end performance is required.
Early computers had very restricted memory and other functions. The earliest computers were made with machine code, a form of digital code which was difficult to understand and change, and thus used a great amount of resources and energy in the CPU. As computers became more advanced, various methods were developed to make them run faster and consume less power. Some of the earliest programs were machine code and memory mapped programming.
Early computers used analog electronics and magnetic signals to store data. They used electromagnetism and non-volatile memory to operate on the computer hardware and the first computers used a stack of RAM, where each computer stored data at a time. As computers with memory capacity and processing speeds increased, they started replacing the RAM in large machines.
Today, integrated circuits, also called microchips, play a major role in making today’s computers. Integrated circuits have revolutionized the design of the computer hardware, making it possible to build highly efficient and memory driven computers. These integrated circuits have enabled the expansion of personal computing to make it a useful mass market item.
Desktop computers are the largest part of the computer industry. Desktop computers are mechanical, consisting of a case made from a plastic or wood and a keyboard and monitor attached to it. The most common desktop computer today is the laptop. Laptop computers use a battery for their electronic device, instead of a permanent power supply. Most laptop computers come with a standard USB port, but laptops also have a FireWire port, which allows for wireless connectivity. Most modern desktops come with an integrated security system, which can detect intruders through the use of a built-in infrared motion detector.
Modern computer components include electronic transistors, which have a different voltage mode than the semiconductor transistors in the microprocessor, and magnetic core interfaces, which are used to pass signals between electronic devices. Integrated circuits, or chips, are used in modern computers. These chips include a circuit board, microprocessor, memory chip, programmable logic circuitry and integrated circuits, or ROMs, that are used to store program code and control electronic devices. Components such as these can only be constructed using the same technologies that were used to build them centuries ago.